How Do You Outline In Law School?

[ Juliana Del Pesco, BARBRI International Legal Manager, Americas ]

It’s a time-honored tradition in law school and one of the most crucial exam preparation steps. If you haven’t guessed, I’m talking about law school outlines.

Outlining simply is synthesizing and meshing course material so you can access details quickly and digest concepts broadly. This process helps you master complex course material by organizing it into something meaningful and understandable for you … and, ultimately, to study for final exams.

A law school outline should consist of things like:

  • the rules from the cases you study
  • your summarized class notes
  • the professor’s hypotheticals
  • any other material that the professor has brought into discussions or alluded to in lectures

Almost every professor will tell you to start outlining early in the semester. Creating your own outline, rather than borrowing, is highly recommended. It may be time consuming but expressing the relevant principles of the law in your own words will help your comprehension and understanding.

Here are our recommended steps:


It’s difficult to build out a meaningful outline without some substance. First, gather all of your foundational information in one place — including your case briefs, class notes, casebook, and maybe a study aid like your BARBRI outline or a handed-down outline. For help acquiring outlines that make the most sense for your classes, you can start by reaching out to your professors. BARBRI also provides great outlines as part of the 1L Mastery Package.


The table of contents in your casebook already has the makings of an outline so you can easily use it as the foundation for yours. It clearly lays out the major area of law, the related subtopics, and where all the cases fit into the discussion. If your professor teaches to a course syllabus rather than following a table of contents, lay out your outline using the syllabus in a similar manner.


Add a clear and complete statement defining the rule of law (e.g., “Battery is ….”). Do this for each rule based on what has been laid out by your professor, a case you read, information you gathered from a commercial outline (such as the outline in 1L Mastery) or hornbook, or some other source (e.g., Use of the Socratic Method in the classroom). It’s critical that you understand and can clearly state the rule.


Next, break down the rule itself into its component parts, or elements. Each element then needs to be defined (e.g., List out all four elements of battery and what they entail). The order should follow the way in which the elements were laid out in class by your professor, or how they track in your casebook. It will serve you well on your final exam to take the time to dissect each rule in this way. You’ll likely be asked to write about an element or elements of battery on the essay exam rather than the rule itself.


Law school exams are based around hypothetical situations. The more practice you have, the more comfortable you’ll be in applying law from cases to new hypotheticals when you encounter them on your exams. You’ll have to grapple with unusual fact patterns and be able to determine which rule should be used to solve the problem created by those facts. I personally found the practice of illustrating how the rule works to be very helpful as a way to truly understand and learn the rules of law.


Skip the case briefs and don’t include case names or citations in your outline unless you believe your professor will expect you to know this.

Remember, your objective is to summarize the law you have learned in one cohesive review tool that will enable you to be successful on exam day.

If you’re an LL.M. student,  download the free BARBRI LL.M. Guide for more tips.


BARBRI has helped more than 1.3 million lawyers around the world pass a U.S. bar exam. The company also provides online J.D., post-J.D., and international programs for U.S. law schools and specialized ongoing training and certifications in areas such as financial crime prevention and eDiscovery.

To help LL.M. students determine which BARBRI course may be best to pass a U.S. state bar exam, check out our blog: BARBRI EXTENDED BAR PREP AND 8-WEEK BARBRI BAR REVIEW: WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?